Friday, September 22, 2017

Use Mentor Sentences to Help Students Write Like Readers

This week we dug into writing with mentor sentences in order to become more intentional about reading like writers and writing like readers.  

The context: AP English 11 is in the middle of reading The Screwtape Letters by C.S. Lewis in order to thoroughly understand the art, tools, and purposes of satire. Each day we come in with a journal recording 3 quotations from the assigned reading and why we found each interesting or effective. The assessment piece will be a new original letter from Screwtape to Wormwood, but the “patient” is a student at our international school in Okinawa, Japan, in 2017 rather than an adult in England in World War 2. 

Three days this week we also spent some time working with mentor sentences from the text. 

Wednesday the topic was using a variety of sentence lengths (especially the power of an occasional very short sentence).
  • Mentor sentences: When I speak of preserving this assumption in his mind, therefore, the last thing I mean you to do is to furnish him with arguments in its defense. There aren’t any. Your task is purely negative. Don’t let his thoughts come anywhere near it. Wrap a darkness about it, and in the center of the darkness let his sense of ownership-in-Time lie silent, uninspected, and operative. (113)
  • Discussion: We turned to pages 112-113 and explored the relative sentence lengths. A couple of them are 5-6 lines long in the book. Most are about 3. The shortest are the 2 adjacent in the section above—2 and 5 words. What’s the effect? What’s lost if those 2 short sentences are instead combined into the previous and following sentences? 
  • Try it: We’d started the class with a 5-minute quick-write exploring the topic on which we were thinking of doing our original letter. Now went back to our quick write and revised it to make one of the sentences really short.
  • Share it with your table group.

Thursday the topic was starting with appositive phrases.

  • Mentor sentences: The routine of adversity, the gradual decay of youthful loves and youthful hopes, the quiet despair (hardly felt as pain) of ever overcoming the chronic temptations with which we have again and again defeated them, the drabness which we create in their lives, and the inarticulate resentment with which we teach them to respond to it--all this provides admirable opportunities of wearing out a soul by attrition. (153)
  • Discussion: We noticed that the main sentence—rather short—is at the end. Four times as long as the main sentence is the preceding accumulation of 5 parallel phrases that expand on “all this.” Lewis could have reversed the order: Many things provide admirable opportunities of wearing out a soul by attrition—the routine of adversity…. What is gained by putting the long list first? Well, for one thing, the reader feels worn out herself by the time she gets through the long, depressing list. Form reinforces meaning.
  • Try it: I started out asking students to find a sentence in yesterday’s quick write that they could revise to start with a series of appositive phrases. That proved too difficult. So I provided a sentence stem we could all relate to: “x, y, and z—all this was wearing on me by the end of last week.”
  • Share it with your table group.

Friday the topic was ending with appositive phrases.

  • Mentor sentences: Cowardice, alone of all the vices, is purely painful--horrible to anticipate, horrible to feel, horrible to remember; hatred has its pleasures. (160)
  • This, indeed, is probably one of the Enemy’s motives for creating a dangerous world--a world in which moral issues really come to the point. (160)
  • Discussion: How is the effect different from starting with the appositive(s) like we did yesterday?
  • Try it: The human foible I want to address in my satire is ___--the x, the y, the z OR The human foible I want to address in my satire is—how people….
  • Share it with your table group.
The best thing was hearing the students interacting, becoming a community of writers, when they shared their sentences in their table groups—“Wow, that was really good,”  “I need to try that!”, “That gave it punch.” We’ll be working on the original letters on Monday, and I think the students are looking forward to it. One asked yesterday, “Can we read everyone else’s letters when we’re done?” Of course. That’s what communities of writers do.

Note: I’m grateful to my peer coach from last year who challenged me to move from the “discussion” to the “try it” part, which I was seldom getting to. I’m grateful to this year’s peer coach who just by her presence on Wednesday and the success of that lesson challenged me to keep it up.

Friday, September 15, 2017

Vocabulary Preview the Quick and Easy Way

11th graders discuss The Screwtape Letters--themes, satire, and vocabulary.

Yesterday in English 10, I saw students in animated discussion of words, asking each other, “What is hamper if it isn’t a dirty clothes hamper?”, analyzing prefixes and roots, admitting, “I don’t know what subsidize means,” and offering, “When I hear the word clutch, I think of a clutch play,” while others made grabbing motions with their fingers. (I threw in “There’s also the type of purse and the part of a manual transmission. How do you think they’re related?”)  

Last week I wrote about the best 15-minute investment I’ve made in teaching my students writing. Today I’ll share the best 10-minute investment in teaching vocabulary. 

I collect vocabulary words from the reading we’ll be doing in a given unit and include the list in the unit outline the students receive when we start. As a preview, I ask students to look over the list and mark each word with a plus, circle, or minus. The plus means you know that word. The minus means you have no idea what it means. The circle can mean anything in between—something like you feel you’d know it in context, though you couldn’t give a definition cold, and it's definitely not in your productive vocabulary. 

When they’ve done that, they ask their table groups about their unknown words to see if any of the other three students can help them. At the end, I ask if there are any words that no one had known. Yesterday ineluctable was the only and unanimous vote. So we talked about that one word briefly as a class—its definition and the context sentence we would find it in. Then we moved on to the reading. 

But with that 10-minute exercise, students not only previewed the vocabulary list, they also became a little more familiar with the words they talked about, and now they are primed to notice those words when we come across them in the reading. And I didn’t even have to create a pre-test! 

What’s an efficient vocabulary learning strategy you’ve used with your students?

Friday, September 8, 2017

Don't Just Hand that Paper In--Reflect on It!

Do you ever remember staying up late to finish a paper, then arriving at class just to hand it in and jump into a new topic? Kind of anti-climactic. Then waiting a week or two, until you’d practically forgotten what you’d written, to get any kind of feedback. 

A finished piece of writing should be celebrated and reflected on, if only to consolidate student learning immediately. But more than that, it gives me information about where the students think they are, and it fosters student ownership of their writing growth.

Having students reflect on their writing when finished with a piece, before getting teacher feedback, is one of the best returns on writing class time. All it takes is 10 or 15 minutes at the beginning of the period when a final draft is due. Because when the students can articulate what they have learned while working on a piece, when they can identify what they did well and what they want to work on, and when they can ask me one specific question about their writing in the finished piece at hand—then I know they are primed to learn, and helping them move from where they are to where they want to go makes teaching the best job in the world.

What kinds of things do students say? Here are some things that my 10th graders wrote this week about their personal narratives describing an epiphany they had:

One thing I learned while working on this piece:
  1. Through this assignment I learned how good writing doesn’t always need to contain complex, difficult phrases. Sometimes I try to use complex words to make it seem like a great writing, when in reality it probably just made it confusing. I also learned that there’s no such thing as looking over your writing too much, because I found a few mistakes every time I looked over it.
  2. One thing I learned about writing was that if you already know what you are going to write about, it is easier to think about ideas while you are writing. If you don’t plan ahead, then you are going to run into problems.
  3. While writing this piece, I learned to put the reader in your situation instead of just saying what I did or what I felt.
  4. I learned that writing a good story or narrative first is more important than making sure your grammar is perfect.
One thing I did well, and one thing I want to grow in:
  1. I think I did well in description and word choice, and I’d like to grow in being able to have a strong voice in my writing; I felt that my writing lacked that a lot.
  2. One thing I felt I had done well was my ideas. I felt they were strong and complex, but written simply. One thing I want to grow into is writing in complex language, i.e. strong words and phrases that convey my point in few words, simple and concise.
  3. One thing I did well was varied sentence lengths, although I’m not sure if their structure was effective. I’d like to get better in writing good conclusions. I didn’t really like the one I came up with.
One specific question I have for Mrs. Essenburg about my writing in this piece:
  1. I felt that my narrative was a bit rushed, but I wasn’t sure what to do since I didn’t want to ramble on in my writing. Are there any tips in writing a satisfying writing while keeping it short, concise, and to the point?
  2. One question I have is whether or not my last paragraph made sense. I was told it didn’t and then I tried to change it.
  3. Am I too redundant? Is the sequence of events confusing, do you know what’s going on? I feel a little like some of the descriptions I used were a little cheesy.
  4. What are some tips for using figurative language better?
So, now I know what they want to know, I have my next few writing lessons outlined! (Plus, students have written another 50-100 words. Words that I don’t have to grade, but that are still impelling all of our learning forward.)

How do you engage students in metacognitive reflection about their writing? 

P.S. Full disclosure: The photo at the top is 11th graders doing a different reflection on a different piece of writing. The 10th grade photos just didn't come out well, and I haven't gotten to reading their reflections yet. Yep, it's been that kind of week. 

Saturday, September 2, 2017

Learning to Teach, Teaching to Learn

Yes, that's the ocean you see in the background. Reading at the beach is better in the spring and fall than in the summer when you live in Okinawa, Japan.

As a high school student I recoiled in horror from the career suggestion of being a teacher—why in the world would I want to go over the same information year after year with students who were frequently indifferent? 

Little did I imagine that effective teaching calls for mastery of so much more than the discipline content—which, by the way, includes understandings and skills as well as information. The other two legs of the triangle are understanding of the students and understanding of pedagogy. 

Even the discipline content changes from year to year—in English, there are that many more books published, any one of which may be the one that will transform a reluctant reader into an avid reader, or open new worlds to a reader, or be the next future classic! (And who has read even all of the current classics? After 30 years of teaching English, I’m still working on the list of 100 books someone thinks every college freshman should have read!) 

The students, of course, change every year—their personalities, experiences, interests, skills, and readiness levels. And in pedagogy, there are constantly advances in brain science as well as social and educational theories, studies, and practices to help us even better connect those constantly changing students we care about with the discipline content, understandings, and skills we care about.

With all those changes, I read (see some of my summer reading here, here, and here) and make plans to incorporate them—unit plans, lesson plans—and sometimes I even learn things in the process of teaching and change those plans on the fly.

Here are some learnings I experienced this week:
  • A new book: I finally got my hands on the award winning graphic novel trilogy March that recounts the Civil Rights movement through the life of Congressman John Lewis. I’m half-way through the final volume and have already book-talked the first one.
  • An old book: I’m also reading East of Eden. Why did I never realize that John Steinbeck can be absolutely hysterical, in a very understated way? The Pearl, The Grapes of Wrath, Tortilla Flat, Of Mice and Men...I've read them, but just always thought he wrote with depressing insight into human nature. But this: "Her head was small and round and it held small round convictions" (!!!). Maybe it’s not just the students who are growing in their ability to read like a writer.
  • My students and their writing: Tenth graders are writing a personal narrative about a time they learned a lesson or had an epiphany. We’ve already read two professional models: “Fish Cheeks” by Amy Tan (in our literature anthology) and “When a Southern Town Broke a Heart” by Jacqueline Woodson (in the New York Times last summer). As we are working through drafts, I’m learning about my students’ lives as well as their writing strengths and next steps.
  • An essential question revision: “What words in what arrangement are most likely to create the desired effect in the audience?” I was just reading aloud from the AP Language textbook, but when a student blurted, “That is a really good question!” I knew it must be better than the one I’d been going with: “Why does style matter?” There is such a thing as being too concise. (Btw, if you're looking for a new AP Language textbook, this one is great. My students even say so, unsolicited, to their parents, at back-to-school night, last night. Full disclosure: I get nothing for saying this.) 

What did you learn this week—about your discipline content, your students, or your pedagogy?

And always keep a sense of humor: This is my "editing day" t-shirt--worn yesterday for the first time this year.

Friday, August 25, 2017

Remembering Why I Teach

I always feel a wee bit of internal foot-dragging as the beginning of a new school year approaches. This year perhaps even more than others, as I’d spent a lot of time with my accreditation coordinator hat on preparing for the self-study. 

But at the end of the first day, I was rejuvenatedthis, these kids, their curiosity, their learning, is the reason for all that other work. 
What are some of the things that energized me in these first few days? 
  • Hearing an Honors English 10 student in a roundtable discussion of their summer reading of Things Fall Apart ask another student, who suggested that the main character was selfish, “Could you give some examples of that?”
  • Hearing AP English 11 students in a roundtable discussion of their summer reading of David and Goliath asking their own questions and working with the group to answer them. Like when one student asked, “What was the point of the story about the French town that wouldn’t give up their Jews?” and the group spent the next 10 minutes dealing with it.
  • Passing on books I love. Like Japan at War: An Oral History, which I loaned to a student who sat straight up with attention when I mentioned the book as an example of why I love teaching world literature—for the new perspectives it opens.
  • Watching students with their annotated copy of the poem “The Creation” and a Bible open in front of them discussing similarities and differences in the source material and the adaptation. One student summed it up: “The poem is like a movie of the Bible passage—a good movie.” (See this blog for more of that lesson.)
  • Seeing students and teachers all over the middle and high school deeply engaged with books during our newly implemented weekly Drop Everything And Read (DEAR) time Thursday afternoon (see photos throughout).

I might have gone a little crazy with asking students to annotate texts (even their syllabus!) to spur and show active reading. Friday when I handed out AP/honors class permission forms that need to be signed by Monday, one student asked, “Do we need to annotate them?”

You know what? I’m happy to be back from summer vacation and into the real work of teaching.

Now I just have to reorganize my classroom library which got ransacked to supply reading material for DEAR. 

Friday, August 18, 2017

Silver Buckshot: Trying New Things

There are no silver bullets—only silver buckshot. I don’t remember where I first read that, but it’s a good antidote for the feeling that if I could find the one key program and follow it, I could suddenly become Superteacher! It’s more a lifelong process of getting a little better at a couple of things every year. 

As the first day of a new school year approaches, there are at least 3 bits of “silver buckshot” I’m ready to implement:
  1. Critical thinking: I’ve created the bulletin board I planned a couple of weeks ago after finishing Making Thinking Visible—filling in the critical thinking descriptors that stand between receiving communication (reading/listening) and producing communication (speaking/writing). Now to hold myself accountable to using it!
  2. Classroom culture: In talking to other teachers during orientation, I found myself using the language from several books I read about fostering a classroom “culture of error” where it is not just safe but encouraged to make mistakes, ask questions, and reveal misunderstandings so we can find out what we need to know to develop powerful understandings.
  3. Reading to share with students: I’ve put up a display of some of the fiction and non-fiction books I read this summer. Every summer I try to explore a variety of books—something to interest a variety of students. I’m looking forward to sharing these, as well as old favorites, with my students.  

What 2-3 small, new steps are you going to incorporate into your teaching this year?

Friday, August 4, 2017

Naming the "Arts" in "English Language Arts"

Content is important. It's important as the stuff about which and with which we exercise the skills of thinking, reading, writing, listening, and speaking that we want students to hone. But the real heart of the matter is those skills. If they graduate without knowing who said, "To be or not to be, that is the question," that's okay, as long as they have developed the skills that, when they run across the quotation, they'll understand it, critique it, and enrich the conversation about it. 

I didn't always think that.

Many years ago when I was a middle school English teacher, I said to a high school colleague, "I enjoy teaching middle school where it's more about the skills, rather than high school where it's more about the content." She looked at me a little quizzically, and let it go.

I wondered about that for a long time. Then I moved to high school. I taught a lot of content, like Hamlet and Macbeth. I tried to teach writing skills using writing process. Then along came 6 Traits of Writing--that gave all of us English teachers and students a common vocabulary for talking and working on good writing.

Then I started wondering about reading--shouldn't there be a similar kind of "6 traits for reading"? There was: 7 strategies

We did a lot of our reading strategy processing by discussing in small groups, and as students went off to college, they came back complaining that their groups at college didn't function nearly as well as their groups in high school. I was glad their groups in high school had functioned well, but thought we could do better by giving them the metacognition and vocabulary to identify what was or wasn't going well, to hold people accountable, and to make it better. Thus I discovered Productive Group Work: How to Engage Students, Build Teamwork, and Promote Understanding.

I would tell students what we do in English class is take in other people's thoughts through reading and listening, think critically about them, and contribute our own thoughts back to the discussion by speaking and writing. The one piece I didn't really have words for, couldn't identify for a struggling student or class, or for someone who asked how she could do it better, was thinking. 

Two weeks ago I read Making Thinking Visible: How to Promote Engagement, Understanding, and Independence for all Learners (see here for my blog), and suddenly it all came together--all that I've been learning for the last 10 years about the skills we want students to hone in English language arts. I came up with this master diagram that will be going up on my classroom wall next week. 

For more information about any of the concepts listed in the diagram, I've listed my sources below. 

Reading strategies:




Saturday, July 29, 2017

Critical Thinking: Name, Value, and Develop It

Making Thinking Visible
Me: “What is God?”

Three-year-old daughter: “God is a spirit and does not have a bottom like people.”

This was part of a series of simple questions and answers about Christian faith that we taught our children when they were small. But the answer I got on this particular day was not the answer I was expecting to hear. I was expecting to hear “God is a spirit and does not have a body like people.” 

After checking to be sure I had, indeed, heard right, I was curious. “What makes you say that, honey?”  She explained about the picture in her story Bible of Jesus ascending into heaven, the one where a cloud covers him from the waist down. 

Now instead of thinking she was just being silly, I realized she was doing a lot of intense thinking, connecting all the things she heard and saw in a way that made sense to her. I’m glad I didn’t just correct her answer without making her thinking visible. Since this day 20+ years ago, I have been in awe of how much hard, sense-making work little kids’ minds are doing. 

How do we keep that sense-making, problem-solving, theory-developing work central as kids get older, enter school, and there seems to be so much content to cover? How do we keep the focus of learning on the thinking that is done about and with content, and not just on amassing facts? How do we make thinking visible so we can give value to it, identify when it is happening, define what makes weak or strong thinking, uncover misinformed theories, and encourage the development of sophisticated ones? 

The authors of Making Thinking Visible start by identifying the activities that make up the thinking we want to happen:
  1. Observing closely and describing what’s there.
  2. Building explanations and interpretations.
  3. Reasoning with evidence.
  4. Making connections.
  5. Considering different viewpoints and perspectives.
  6. Capturing the heart and forming conclusions.
  7. Wondering and asking questions.
  8. Uncovering complexity and going beneath the surface of things.

Then they explain and describe 21 thinking routines that can make these 8 invisible activities visible and foster their development. What is a thinking routine? Have you ever done a group decision-making exercise like “Keep-Start-Stop” or “Helps/Hinders”? That’s what a thinking routine is—a simple question or short list of questions, general enough to be used in a variety of situations, but specific enough to prompt deep thinking. 

The idea is not just to use the thinking routine as a one-time activity, but to use it enough that students become good at it (understanding what shallow vs. deep connections, questions, or conclusions are) and internalize, using the routine on their own.

Of the 21 thinking routines they name, here are several I will definitely be using this year:
  1. See-Think-Wonder (p. 55). Looking at an image or object, ask the following 3 questions: What do you see? What do you think is going on? What does it make you wonder? I will use this in AP Language and Composition as we learn to interpret visual arguments, from political cartoons to graphs to ads to works of art. This routine starts with observing closely without being blindered by premature interpretations, then goes into building explanations and interpretations (reasoning with evidence can also be brought in here with the follow-up question, “What makes you say that?”), and finally expands into connection, application, evaluation, “so what?” One distinction to draw here is to be sure that the wonders aren’t just another form of thinking, but a broadening out.
  2. What Makes You Say That? (p. 165). As shown above, this question is so useful, the authors have made it its own thinking routine, but it can also be incorporated into any other thinking routine. Why is this a useful question? It emphasizes reasoning with evidence. When employed as a follow-up to any statement, assertion, or opinion—right or wrong, nascent or mature, complex or shallow—it sends the message that the reasoning is at least as important as the answer. It doesn’t telegraph the answers that teachers are “looking for,” but signals our curiosity about the reasoning behind the answer. In this way, it is also a good routine for any conversation in life.
  3. Connect-Extend-Challenge (p. 132). In this thinking routine, participants consider what they have just read, seen, or heard, then ask themselves the following questions: (1) How are the ideas and information presented connected to what you already knew? (2) What new ideas did you get that extended or broadened your thinking in new directions? (3) What challenges or puzzles have come up in your mind from the ideas and information presented? I will use this with all of my English students as we read a new piece around a unit theme in preparation for a synthesis essay. I will also use this when I facilitate faculty book discussions or present new instructional strategies in secondary faculty meetings.
  4. Claim-Support-Question (191). My first thought was that this thinking routine is perfect for AP Language and Comp because it uses the argument concepts of claims, support, and counterclaims. Then I thought it is also a perfect fit for exploring questions of literary interpretation in honors English 10, such as, “Who or what is the man with no face in Haruki Murakami’s postmodern novel After Dark?” And that will make for a good connection between the classes! Here’s how the routine goes (it can be used for a claim made by an author we are reading, or a claim made by a student): Drawing on their investigation, experience, prior knowledge, or reading, participants do the following:
    1. Make a claim about the topic, issue, or idea being explored.
    2. Identify support for the claim.
    3. Raise a question related to the claim. What may make you doubt the claim? What seems left hanging? What isn’t fully explained? What further ideas or issues does your claim raise?

Everybody in education these days is talking about critical and creative thinking. It’s one of the 21st Century skills! It’s engaging, rigorous, and what employers are looking for. But what exactly is it, and how do we foster it in our classrooms (and lives)? In Making Thinking Visible, the authors give teachers some much-needed traction on this question, identifying 8 activities that are components of critical and creative thinking, and then naming and explaining 21 routines for making those components that most often take place invisibly, inside our heads, visible. This is important so we can identify, value, and cultivate the thinking that is the motivation and the goal of learning.

I loved that the book gave examples of these routines being effectively used in all subject areas at all grade levels. Read the book to identify which handful of the 21 routines you can practically implement in your classroom—no one can effectively use them all. I’m glad I had to write this blog—it made me identify the few I’m going to use this year.

Stay tuned to see how it goes! 

P.S. And also read Cultivating Cultures of Thinking, which I read and blogged on at the beginning of the summer. In it Ron Ritchhart discusses thinking routines along with the other 7 forces for cultivating cultures of thinking! 

Friday, July 21, 2017

Differentiation is NOT a Scary Word

I found How to Differentiate Instruction in Academically Diverse Classrooms by Carol Ann Tomlinson not only crammed with so many good ideas it will take me a book discussion to unpack it all, but also just straight up inspiring. Here's how it starts:

Teaching is difficult.

Teaching really well is profoundly difficult.

Even the best among us fall short of our professional aspirations regularly, and feel diminished in those moments.

Okay, so not inspiring yet, but she does let you know you're not alone.

And yet, for many, the work of teaching is also nourishing. It grows us as we grow the young people in our care. Each success is instructive. Each failure is instructive. We are challenged to become the best version of ourselves as we challenge our students to become their best as well.

One classroom reality that taxes our capacity to teach as we need and want to teach is the great variety of learners who surround us every day. They are mature and immature for their age.... They are excited by school and terrified by it. They suffer from poverty and from affluence. They are entitled, and they are without hope. They are socially adept and socially inept. They are intrigued, inspired, and shut down by very different topics or issues…. (vii)

And that's just the preface!

What is the answer to captivating every one of these varied children with the content, skills, and understandings we teach and in order to equip them to succeed in our classrooms and in life? Differentiation. What is differentiation? According to Tomlinson, who published the first edition of this book over 20 years ago and the third edition this year, “In a differentiated classroom, the teacher proactively plans and carries out varied approaches to content, process, and product in anticipation of and response to student differences in readiness, interest, and learning needs” (10). While the first half of the book is about the need for differentiated instruction and the role of the teacher, students, and learning environment in a differentiated classroom, that 3x3 grid—differentiating content, process, and product in response to students’ varied readiness, interest, and learning needs—is the second half of the book. 

There are so many ideas I’ll need a book discussion with my colleagues in the fall to unpack them all. But I did have a few overall responses:

I appreciate Tomlinson’s reminder that it’s not only English language learners and struggling learners who need attention, but also advanced learners and “kids in the middle.” Under-challenge for advanced learners can result in mental laziness, undeveloped study and coping skills, rewards found in grades rather than learning, risk avoidance, and failure to develop self-efficacy. And about kids in the middle she says the following: “...[T]he most devastating wound teachers and schools inflict on students is the wound of underestimation…. It’s easy to get lost in the great middle…. And yet, in among these kids who don’t seem extraordinary in any way, there are ones who need just a little more help to be able to soar academically. There are ones who need to find their voice but will remain mute without a teacher taking time to ask and to listen.… In the middle is pretty much the whole human condition. And every student in the middle is waiting for someone to signal that he is unique, that she is special, and that there is no achievement that is beyond reach. Teachers have the opportunity (and I would argue, the obligation) to be that someone as often as it is humanly possible to be” (30).

This does not mean, however, that every child needs his/her own individually tailored learning program--that would be overwhelming! To a certain extent, simply using a variety of instructional approaches enhances everyone’s opportunities to learn: “There is no exclusive ‘ELL’ strategy that doesn’t have utility for some other students as well, just as there is no exclusive strategy for students who struggle, who are advanced, or any student for that matter. What’s necessary is that teachers understand their students, be prepared with a broad repertoire of instructional approaches, and use those approaches in ways that support growth for particular students in particular contexts” (29).

I also appreciate Tomlinson's emphasis that “in order to provide good differentiated curriculum and instruction—whether we are talking about content, process, or product—you should first have good curriculum and instruction” (144). The most challenging and foundational prerequisite for differentiation is convincing students that your class goals are important to them, and that the activities you have designed will get them there. Otherwise you can spend hours designing tiered assignments, orbitals, and RAFT assessments, and some students will still ask how it will be graded and slip by with the minimum of investment.  

The good news is, good teaching is good teaching, however it is packaged. Don't fear the jargon "differentiation." There are common themes that have emerged from the three professional books I've read so far this summer. The three books are framed in very different ways by very different people. Creating Cultures of Thinking: The 8 Forces We Must Master to Truly Transform Our Schools is by a senior research associate at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Teach Like a Champion 2.0: 62 Techniques that Put Students on the Path to College is by a guy who runs an organization with the mission of starting and managing "outstanding urban public schools that close the achievement gap and prepare low-income scholars to graduate from college" (Lemov xxxi). How to Differentiate Instruction in Academically Diverse Classrooms is by the guru of all differentiation. But each of them want school to be a place where every child is challenged, empowered, and equipped to learn and succeed. And each of them insist that in order for this to happen, the classroom should be a place of emotional safety and intellectual engagement, where both teacher and students know the learning goals are significant, know what they are, and know how the learning activities will help them get there.

Good teaching is pretty basic, and yet it's taken me a lifetime to grow into it--and I'm still growing. So grab a break this summer, fellow teachers--head for the beach, or the mountains, or the pool, or your family--but somewhere along the line, also grab one of these books--or a different one that will grow and challenge your teaching practice come the fall. Let's get ourselves ready to return rested to the great challenge of helping every kid in our classes experience more success and joy in learning.

Friday, July 14, 2017

Teaching Like a Champion, Part 2

The Driehaus Museum--the lovely restored Gilded Age mansion in downtown Chicago that we toured this morning
  • I’m going to turn my walkie-talkie off right now because there’s nothing more annoying than being interrupted by bursts of static. Would you please also silence your cell phones?
  • You are more than welcome to take lots of pictures—just no flash photography, please.
  • What parts of this room are you noticing right now?
  • Can anybody guess what this centerpiece was used for? (Silence.) It has something to do with the bunches of grapes in relief around the edge.
  • I have some more information on your question, and I’d be happy to talk to you about it after the tour.

You know you’re a teacher when during summer vacation, at a family reunion, on a group tour of the Driehaus Museum, you keep noticing how the knowledgeable, lively guide employs techniques from your latest professional reading, Teach Like a Champion 2.0. And then you go back to your hotel room and blog about it. (What did the guide do? She clearly articulated, modeled, and gave reasons for her expectations. She framed them positively. She invited participation with questions, wait time, and prompts. She kept the pace moving.)

Two weeks ago I blogged about the first half of the book, and this week I’ll finish it up. Doug Lemov has spent many years observing champion teachers in their classrooms, capturing the moves that make them great, classifying and naming those moves, and then sharing them with other teachers so we, too can teach like champions. There are 62 of these moves or techniques (thus the subtitle: 62 Techniques that Put Students on the Path to College), organized into 4 parts:
  1. Check for Understanding: Specific techniques to gather valid and reliable data throughout each lesson in order to modify instruction to boost student understanding.
  2. Academic Ethos: Specific techniques to communicate the high expectations and plan and pace the instruction that maintains rigor.
  3. Ratio: Specific techniques to ensure that all students are frequently and actively engaged in rigorous thinking.
  4. Five Principles of Classroom Culture: Specific techniques for establishing routines, managing behavior, and building relationships that make your classroom a place where vigorous learning can flourish.
Part 3 was my favorite. I've long quoted Harry Wong's line “School should not be a place where young people go to watch old people work.” “Ratio” is Lemov’s shorthand for this idea. As he says, “One of our most important goals as teachers…is to cause students to do as much of the cognitive work—the writing, the thinking, the analyzing, the talking—as possible” (234). This ratio has 2 dimensions: participation (all students as often as possible) and rigor (quality and depth of thinking). The 3 chapters in part 3, elucidate 3 ways to build ratio: through questioning, writing, and discussion. All 3 of which I teach and use a lot, but I’m always on the lookout for how to do it more and better, and here are 3 techniques I’ll be using more intentionally and systematically next year:
  • Cold Calling: Can be misused as a “gotcha,” but can also be an important part of a classroom culture where everyone is expected to be engaged at all times. If this seems threatening to you or to your students, Lemov outlines steps for acclimating students.
  • Everybody Writes: Ask a challenging question, and then give students time—even if just a minute or two—to respond in writing before discussing. This gives students more writing practice (and a purpose for writing), fosters more rigorous discussion, and helps students experience the processing by which thoughts and writing are refined. As far as procedure goes, it prepares students for Turn and Talk or Cold Call. 
  • Art of the Sentence: Lemov points out that we spend a lot of time addressing word choice and paragraph structure, but not so much on sentences. But if we “ask students to synthesize a complex idea, summarize a reading, or distill a discussion in a single, well-crafted sentence…the discipline of having to make one sentence do all the work pushes students to use new grammatical forms” (286). You can increase scaffolding by using sentence starters (“Summarize the data from this graph in one complete, well-written sentence that begins with the phrase ‘Over time…’” [286]) or sentence parameters. Sentence parameters could include using academic vocabulary (“Using the word ‘epiphany,’…”), idea combinations (“Explain the author’s proposal and how you know it’s satire…”), or discipline-specific thinking (in science, begin “To test this hypothesis…”).

It’s not that I’ve never used any of these techniques in my class, but giving them a name and thinking about the benefits of systematically implementing them—not just 3 times a year for a change of pace or because I remembered this cool trick—I think could make a difference.